About one hundred miles underground, heat and pressure from the Earth crystallize carbon into rough diamonds. A specific type of volcanic eruption, the kimberlite eruption, brings a diamond-containing igneous rock, closer to the earth’s surface – with the most eruption occurring over 100 million years ago. Only one in every 10,000 diamonds has a natural color. Diamonds with special colors are rare and at high clarity levels they are expensive.
In order for a rough diamond to reach its full potential it will undergo a cutting and polishing process, during which the diamond will lose up to 50% of its original rough carat weight on average. The most popular cut shape favored by jewelers is the round ‘brilliant’ cut shape with 58 facets, which maximizes light reflectively from the facets. After cutting, each rough diamond is transformed into polished diamond. This is done to ensure maximum weight, clarity and best angles for the specific shape of diamond stone.
After cutting and polishing, the rough gem will become finished stone. The actual finishing process reveals the inner beauty of a natural colored stone. This process can take a few hours or dozens of hours, depending on the nature and size of the stone and complexity of the design. Once this process has been done, it is taken to a lab to be assessed and certified.
The certificate scheme was created in response to the specific needs of the mining industry and to make sure that a manufacturer purchases a diamond from legal mines committed to ethical diamond mining and upholding the rights of miners. Colored diamonds are certified by GIA (Gemological Institute of America), widely considered as a standard bearer of the diamond certification industry. Certifying a diamond involves grading its quality and issuing a report containing the findings of the assessment.